The Films of 2012: Les Miserables

You may emerge from Les Miserables feeling almost as battered and bruised as its characters: Tom Hooper’s adaptation of the wildly popular stage musical runs just under three hours and feels closer to four.  So many stops are pulled out—each number trying to out-tear-jerk the last—that by the time the two-hour mark rolled around both my attention and my sympathies had begun to flag.  That said, this is probably the best mounting of this material one can imagine, and fans of the stage version will no doubt be satisfied.  An unapologetically big, un-subtle, high-pitched behemoth of a show, Les Mis requires as excessive and bombastic a treatment as it’s been given here.  With its frenetic camerawork and overwrought performances, it’s more than a little vulgar, but what other approach would be suitable for this material?  Les Miserables doesn’t have the subtle embroidery of something by Sondheim; it calls for big, thick strokes, and Hooper and his cast lay them on well (though I’m still not convinced that Hooper knows what to do with his camera, which is rarely in the right place). 

The Films of 2012: The Color Wheel

Finally—a mumblecore movie that seems to be aware of how insufferable its characters are!  J.R. (Carlen Altman), the figure (one hesitates to call her a heroine) at the center of Alex Ross Perry’s The Color Wheel, is passive-aggressive, needy, willfully awkward, borderline hostile in her quirkiness.  She’s the reverse image of the Manic Pixie type that has become such a cliché in movies about young people, or, rather, she’s its logical extension, the Manic Pixie as monster.  In a strange twist, J.R.’s monstrosity makes her far more tolerable and worthy of our compassion than, say, Natalie Portman in Garden State.  She’s a curious, off-putting character, and she sets this strange little film on edge from the beginning. 


The Films of 2012: The Central Park Five

The infamous “Central Park jogger” case and the five young black and Latino men who became its scapegoats are the subject of Ken Burns’ incisive and powerful new documentary The Central Park Five, co-directed by Burns' daughter Sarah and son-in-law David McMahon.  Most viewers will know Ken Burns’ acclaimed small-screen work: his epic, multi-part documentaries on the American Civil War, baseball, jazz, and the U. S. national parks, all shot for PBS, have proven hugely popular both inside and outside of the classroom.  Here, Burns and his collaborators turn their attentions to a somewhat smaller but no less important chapter of American history.  The story unfolds largely from the points of view of the five teenage boys who, in the spring of 1989, were coerced by officials into taking the blame for the rape and battery of Trisha Meili, a young white woman attacked while jogging in Central Park.  Kevin Richardson, Yusef Salaam, Raymond Santana, and Korey Wise, all of whom were recently released from prison after the real perpetrator came forward and confessed, recount their ordeal with a devastating emotional honesty (the fifth of the men, Antron McCray, is heard but not shown on-camera).  


The homosexual in the text: Zak Spears as Manny Burke in "Solicitor" (1994)

It’s more or less a given that gay pornography makes sex between men its business—but gay pornography’s attitude toward the concept of homosexuality itself is something far more vexed.  One need only survey the vast pool of gay pornography that advertises straight or gay-for-pay models to see that many pornographers have, whether effectively or not, attempted to write homosexuality out of gay porn altogether.  (Needless to say, a lot of hands have been wrung over this, with many claiming that the fetishization of straight men in gay porn breeds self-loathing among gay male viewers.)  Part of the issue here seems to be that the move away from narrative pornography in the digital age (individual scenes have replaced narrative feature films, a shift that suggests a return to pornography’s origins in silent, single-scene stag reels and loops) has meant that gay porn films are less likely to structure themselves around the narrative tropes of homosexuality, such as closetedness, sexual initiation, coming out, etc.  Amateur porn sites no doubt trade in their own narratives of gay sex as experiment: “this is my first time” has itself become a cliché of straight-guy porn.  Even so, gone seem to be the days when (some, not all) gay pornography showed a certain investment in making itself a platform from which to speak, however clumsily, about the experiences, whether lived or imagined, of the gay men likely to be consuming it. 

So I was inspired to check out Solicitor (dir. Jim Steel, 1994), which might be classified as a pornographic coming-out film.  In its own fumbling, almost quaint way, Solicitor uses a conventional coming-out narrative as a jumping-off point from which to stage its scenes of sexual fantasy.  Solicitor manages to capitalize both on straight-guy/closet fantasies and the fantasy of gay romance.  Zak Spears plays a commitment-phobic attorney with a reputation for womanizing.  His affect is one of arrogant condescension, later revealed to be nothing more than the exaggerated swagger of a closet case.  He gets off on watching two cleaning men—both of whom are also presented as closeted men with girlfriends—having sex in his office, a scene that proves epiphanic (“If I didn’t know better, I’d swear you were going queer!” he tells his reflection in the mirror afterward). 

Meanwhile, the office intern (Bo Summers), who nurses a crush on the boss, deflects his sexual energy toward a gay friend and a conveniently delivered courier.  While Summers is apparently already out of the closet, albeit hapless and inhibited, Spears exhibits shame and contempt in his scene with a male stranger he picks up at the pier.  The film makes it clear that Spears and Summers, fated for one another, must heal one another’s sexual hang-ups.  Their long-awaited sex scene together is staged as romantically as any final clinch from the end of a Hollywood movie: it announces their formation as a couple (the final shot finds them cuddling in bed together).  

My point is not to hail Solicitor as a ground-breaking or even particularly noteworthy pornographic film; it’s rather to remind us that we can look to pornography as readily as to any number of other film genres in order to see how narratives of homosexuality have proliferated.  It’s a notion to which I hope to return in the new year, when I plan to look at a handful of films from pornography’s golden age.  Stay tuned.          


The homosexual in the text: The figure of Langston Hughes in "Looking for Langston" (1989)

How to describe, let alone classify, Isaac Julien’s Looking for Langston (1989)?  As a film that refuses, finally, to be placed, it is queer in its very uncategorizability.  Forty minutes long, shot in soft, dreamy monochrome, it mixes archival footage of Langston Hughes (seen above) with impressionistic shots of black (and white) men’s bodies in various states of erotic languor—in bed, in a field, on a dance floor somewhere out of time—while lines of poetry by Hughes and others (Essex Hemphill, Bruce Nugent) are heard in voice-over on the soundtrack.  It exists somewhere between documentary, narrative, and experimental film; while, on one level, it does the work of historically recovering the homoerotic power of Hughes’ writing and the queer energy of the Harlem Renaissance more generally, it’s not a film invested in boiling its subject down to facts, or even a clear political agenda.  Its aim seems rather to bring together a number of historical and theoretical subjects—blackness, queerness, poetry, sex, music, death—and to meditate on them poetically, in the spirit of Hughes’ own work. 

Looking for Langston represents a split within the New Queer Cinema movement away from a realism grounded in the rhythms of the lived experience of late twentieth-century urban intellectual queers toward more rarefied, abstract, even academic subject matter.  Where the films of Rose Troche or Bill Sherwood make an effort to convey some sense, however stylized or simplified, of what it was like to be a part of a queer urban subculture in the ’80s and ’90s, Isaac Julien’s film concerns itself with something far more amorphous—what Raymond Williams might call a structure of feeling, a constellation of historical, cultural and psychological factors that registers at the level of affect.  In other words, Looking for Langston ultimately doesn’t tell us “what it was like” to be a gay man during the Harlem Renaissance, or any other time and place—in fact, it doesn’t tell us anything; it suggests, imagines, dreams about queerness and blackness, and about the expression of that queerness and that blackness through poetry, dance, and jazz.  It’s a fantasia on the themes of homosexuality and race in the same way that Todd Haynes’ Poison (1991), another classic of New Queer Cinema, is a fantasia on the themes of homosexuality, persecution, contamination, monstrosity.  Stylistically, Looking for Langston belongs to the tradition of surrealism and the avant-garde, even as it mixes references to films like Cocteau’s Orpheus (see below) with popular influences like jazz.  These New Queer films put the emphasis on “queer”: not content to be conventional (i.e., straight-minded) films tricked out with gay and lesbian accents, they insist on a queerness that refuses to be incorporated into or even fully understood by members of the cultural mainstream.


The homosexual in the text: V. S. Brodie as Ely in “Go Fish” (1994)

Judith Halberstam writes that, in addition to functioning as a lesbian romance, Go Fish (dir. Rose Troche, 1994) concerns itself with acts of “butch self-fashioning” such as the transformation of dowdy, hippieish Ely (V. S. Brodie, pictured right) into a masculinized fashion plate—she trades in her long hair and ’70s clothes for a buzz cut and men’s shirts with suspenders, attracting a new girlfriend (played by co-screenwriter Guinevere Turner) and putting an end to her sexual dry spell in the process.  Go Fish is finely attuned to the politics of queer style, in particular to the ways in which queer women use such seemingly innocuous markers of personal appearance (hairstyles, clothes, accessories, makeup) as sites of self-expression, and how these markers are read and interpreted by other members of their community (Ely’s radical changes in haircut and clothing do not go unremarked-upon by the other women who make up her social circle).  Ely’s love interest Max (Turner) similarly undergoes a transformation, albeit a fantastical one, into a hyper-feminine seductress, complete with heavy make-up and lingerie, in an alternate version of her seduction of Ely, imagined by a mutual friend (seen above). 


The homosexuals in the text: The men of "Parting Glances" (1986)

Bill Sherwood’s Parting Glances (1986) strikes me as not so much a charming and spirited gay love story (though it is that, too) as a portrait of what we might call the gay male scene—which is to say that, in its panoramic taking-in of the punks, queens, dykes, twinks, hipsters, jet-setters, muscle gods, art fags, and straight hangers-on that make up Sherwood’s version of gay New York in the mid-80s, a Proustian enterprise with inflections of Robert Altman, it is less invested in appropriating the narrative conventions of a marriage plot (ultimately pre-occupied with the question who will end up with whom?) than in conveying a sense of a particular social environment in which a vast array of bodies mingle, brush up against one another, advance, retreat.  Parting Glances is almost a Linnean classification of gay male body types as they correspond to gay male social types: the rounded, pink body of the soft-spoken, sharp-tongued, sexually undesirable Edith Piaf queen; the fashionable, well-toned but not over-muscular, slightly smug, slightly banal body of the gay urban professional, compared bitchily by one of his acquaintances to that of a Ken doll; the pretty body of the puppyish, gold-digging college freshman, who moves confidently through crowds as if protected within the invisible bubble of his own sexual precocity; the sallow, wiry body of the punk rocker, whose sallowness and wiriness may not, in fact, be the visual evidence of his impending death from AIDS but rather the sign of his willful refusal to fall in line with the gay male body fascists who would appear to be warding off infection in their very obsession with their own musculature; and, finally, the non-descript, overgrown-teenager’s body of the Jewish intellectual—the image of the gay man as dork.  In encouraging, even requiring us to read, understand, and classify these bodies—to cruise them, look them up and down, eat them up with our eyes, take up some and discard others—Parting Glances makes gay men of all of those who watch it.  


The homosexuals in the text: Helen Shaver as Vivian Bell and Patricia Charbonneau as Cay Rivvers in "Desert Hearts" (1985)

Desert Hearts (dir. Donna Deitch, 1985) has been accorded something of a place of honor in lesbian cinema as a sensitive, romantic coming-out story, in which buttoned-down Vivian Bell (Helen Shaver, pictured, right) finds herself falling helplessly in love with the free-spirited Cay (Patricia Charbonneau, left) while in Reno to get a quick divorce.  The Southwestern milieu, the country music, the figure of the sexually empowered woman…these have become standard conventions of the post-Stonewall lesbian drama, and Desert Hearts can be credited—or blamed, as the case may be—as the surprise indie hit that launched a thousand sub-par rip-offs, ex. Boys on the Side (1995), Even Cowgirls Get the Blues (1994), or the gay male variation Big Eden (2000). 


The homosexual in the text: Richard Cox as Stuart Richards in "Cruising" (1980)

Cruising (dir. William Friedkin) occupies a particularly contentious place in the history of homosexuality onscreen.  Released in 1980, it depicts NYC’s gay bar scene as a Dantean underworld into which an undercover cop (played by Al Pacino) must descend in order to catch a killer preying on gay men.  The film was heavily protested during production as well as after its release by gay activist groups who objected to the associations of gay male culture with violent death as well as to what they felt was an exploitative use of s/m imagery to strike horror and fear in the hearts of straight audience members.  Gay characters like Stuart Richards (pictured above) adhere to familiar cultural stereotypes: he’s a student at Columbia researching the roots of the musical theater tradition, and his murderous impulses (as well as his sexual fetishes) are explained as being rooted in latent daddy issues.  In Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman’s documentary The Celluloid Closet (1996), the Cruising protests become a symbol of a turning point in gay cultural history, something of a “we’re not gonna take it” moment; we see footage of activists marching to the chant “Stop the movie Cruising!”  After which point, according to The Celluloid Closet’s progress narrative, such bad, straight-authored representations of gay people are replaced by good, gay-authored representations in films like Desert Hearts and Parting Glances (on the subject of which, stay tuned). 


The Films of 2012: Magic Mike

Steven Soderbergh’s Magic Mike, set within the world of Tampa’s clubs, beach bars and strip joints, would pair nicely with his 2009 The Girlfriend Experience, about a high-class female escort based in New York City.  Like that film, Magic Mike is a clever and somewhat wry exposé of the material circumstances that underwrite the selling of sexual fantasies.  Both films are about sex work, with a heavy emphasis on work—they’re fundamentally films about money, and about the difficulty in separating one’s jobs from one’s personal relationships, especially when both the jobs and the relationships involve a lot of hands-on time with members of the opposite sex. 


The Films of 2012: The Deep Blue Sea

Earlier this week, Rachel Weisz was named Best Actress of the year by the New York Film Critics’ Circle for her performance in Terence Davies’ The Deep Blue Sea.  Weisz is one of our most talented working actresses; I first sat up and took notice of her in Neil LaBute’s The Shape of Things (2003), and two years later I was similarly impressed with her turn in The Constant Gardener, for which she won an Oscar.  She’s so good in The Deep Blue Sea that she makes you wish the movie were better at framing her performance.  As Hester Collyer, a fallen woman whose pursuit of romantic passion very nearly brings about her destruction, she exudes a kind of nervous desperation—she wants something that no one in the film can give her, neither her well-meaning, prosperous husband, for whom she feels affection but no love, nor her lover, a self-absorbed WWII veteran who fails to reciprocate the intensity of her devotion to him. 


The Films of 2012: Bernie

“We’re all capable of that dark moment, if we ever get angry enough.”  This unpleasant truth is spoken not by a hard-boiled criminal but by a sweet, soft-spoken woman of a certain age, a resident of Carthage, Texas, where Richard Linklater’s Bernie is set.  It’s an affectionate yet deceptively cynical vision of small-town America, based on an actual murder case in which mild-mannered funeral director Bernie Tiede (played by Jack Black) impulsively shot his elderly companion Marjorie Nugent (Shirley MacLaine) to death in her home, then hid the body for months in a freezer.  The news comes as a shock to the residents of Carthage—a town populated almost entirely by old people, as it’s represented here—in whose eyes Bernie was a beloved, if somewhat eccentric, member of the community.  Meanwhile, the district attorney (Matthew McConaughey) conspires to move Bernie’s trial to a neighboring town in an attempt to ensure his conviction, his fear being that Bernie is so well-liked by his fellow Carthaginians that it would be impossible to find anyone impartial enough to serve on the jury.


The homosexual in the text: Leonard Treviglio as "Sebastiane" (1976)

When I was growing up in the early 1990s my dad subscribed to the Movies Unlimited catalog, which I regularly perused; I usually stuck to the “Horror” section, but occasionally I would leaf through the rest of the book, where I eventually came upon a group of videos listed under the heading “Gay Interest,” one of which was Derek Jarman’s Sebastiane (1976).  The capsule description of the film was accompanied by a thumbnail image of the video box cover (or maybe a version of the poster?) which showed the title character, more or less nude but in shadow and in profile, his hands bound over his head, his torso pierced with arrows.  I had never even heard of St. Sebastian at the time, let alone Derek Jarman, but the image made an indelible impression on me; I never forgot it. 


The homosexual in the text: Neil Flanagan as Cherry Lane in "Fleshpot on 42nd Street" (1973)

Andy Milligan’s Fleshpot on 42nd Street (1973) is a great example of how much fun trash cinema can be.  Its plot hangs on the flimsiest and yet most reliable of threads—a girl, alone in the city and in need of money, resorts to turning tricks in order to make ends meet—and yet it’s got such a loose, grimy, homemade feel that it’s almost charming (it’s not a mean-spirited, ugly exploitation film like, say, Vidal Raski’s The Sinful Dwarf [1973]).  Milligan and his main actors have a warmth that you don’t always see in exploitation films; Deadly Weapons (dir. Doris Wishman, 1974) is another example of an exploitation film that feels downright cruel by contrast.  In Fleshpot, there’s a solidarity not only between the freaks and the whores and the queens but also between the characters and the filmmakers.  Like John Waters, Milligan never affects an air of superiority toward his subject matter or his characters.  And so the drag queen Cherry Lane (Neil Flanagan) emerges as an affectionately drawn salt-of-the-earth type instead of a pathetic old hag.


The homosexual in the text: Morgan Royce as Ephraim McKeever in "Song of the Loon" (1970)

Thirty-five years before Brokeback Mountain (dir. Ang Lee, 2005), there was Song of the Loon (dir. Andrew Herbert, 1970), a gay romance of the North American frontier that has since become something of a cult item.  It claims to be set in the late nineteenth century, but many of the film’s conflicts and situations reflect those relevant to the experience of gay men circa 1970 rather than 1870.  In staging its fantasy of gay love against the backdrop of the nineteenth-century frontier, Song of the Loon suggests a profound discomfort with twentieth-century gay culture.  Stories of the American frontier, epitomized by the Hollywood Western, are nearly always stories of escape or flight from the social order; as a Western about the fantasy of fleeing the gay mainstream, Song of the Loon is no exception. 


The Films of 2012: Hitchcock

Sacha Gervasi’s Hitchcock is a movie about Hitchcock for people who don’t actually like, care or know much about Hitchcock.  It offers a superficial account of the making of Psycho that ultimately tells us nothing of interest about the film or its creators; it simply uses them as a means by which to invoke the most tiresome platitudes, chief among them being that old chestnut, Behind Every Man There Is A Great Woman.  While the film is right to note that Alma Reville, Hitchcock’s wife and longtime collaborator, played a major role in shaping the work for which her husband received most of the credit, it turns their complex relationship into something mawkish.  After both he and she spend most of the film engaging in playful (but apparently chaste) flirtations with other men and women, they have a cheap reconciliation, capped with a nauseating punchline (Hitch to Alma: “Of all the Hitchcock blondes, none is as pretty as you”).  Hitchcock is a film that capitalizes on the Hitchcock name—still powerful thirty-plus years after his death—in order to sell audiences on something that bears not the slightest resemblance, in body or in spirit, to anything having to do with its subject.  It’s a big empty box tied up with a ribbon that’s been stamped with the image of Hitchs profile.   

The homosexual in the text: Susannah York as Alice McNaught in "The Killing of Sister George" (1968)

With Robert Aldrich’s lesbian melodrama The Killing of Sister George (1968) we return to the question of representation.  The lesbian characters in the film would seem to fall into neat homophobic types: the possessive, aggressive butch; the chic, cold vampiress; the little-girl femme.  It’s that last character that I want to think about here.  Alice (Susannah York), known as “Childie” to her (female) live-in lover George, is a waiflike would-be poetess prone to wearing nighties and talking to her dolls.  If her given name brings to mind Lewis Carroll—and late in the film, donning a long-haired wig with a headband, she even begins to resemble Alice in Wonderland—her nickname further infantilizes her; George calls her “Childie” not only out of affection, but also to enforce an imbalance of power between them.  They live as a parody of the normative family, as wife and female husband and, at the same time, as incestuous parent and child.  


The homosexual in the text: Shirley MacLaine as Martha Dobie in "The Children's Hour" (1961)

Something I’ve come to notice in the process of working my way through gay and lesbian film history: the films that make up the gay canon are often the ones that dominant culture (and dominant cultural histories of film) find abhorrent, embarrassing, or just plain bad.  Stanley Kauffmann on Cat on a Hot Tin Roof: “it lacks resonance beneath its action; its writing is sometimes stilted, some of its motivations are insufficient, and its resolution is feeble.”  Pauline Kael on The Children’s Hour: “a portentous, lugubrious dirge. […]  I’m not sure the material would work even if you camped it up and played it for laughs.”  Geoff Andrew on The Killing of Sister George: “with its grotesque stereotyping and tour de force bitchiness and hysteria, it’s like yet another installment in the Whatever Happened to Baby Jane? saga.” 


The homosexual in the text: Peter McEnery as "Boy" Barrett in "Victim" (1961)

Basil Dearden’s Victim (1961)—a groundbreaking film in the U.K., where it helped bring about the decriminalization of homosexuality—feels a bit dull and stuffy today, not least because, set as it is within the restrained, mannered world of the English upper classes, its characters do a lot of brow-furrowing and lip-stiffening and gazing worriedly into the middle distance.  As Pauline Kael pointed out, in its attempt to make homosexuality respectable the film drains it of any pleasure it might hold (the idea seems to be that you may practice homosexuality so long as you don’t like it).  This idea also plays out in the film’s distinction between the gay men who are capable of managing their affairs, largely due to their class privilege, and the gay boys who literally can’t afford to do so. 


The homosexuals in the text: unknown actor as Sebastian Venable and Montgomery Clift as Dr. Cukrowicz in “Suddenly, Last Summer” (1959)

In “Visual Pleasure in 1959,” his virtuosic reading of Suddenly, Last Summer (dir. Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 1959), D. A. Miller explicates the means by which the image of the homosexual in the text, the doomed Sebastian Venable, is displaced onto the body of Elizabeth Taylor, playing his traumatized cousin Catherine.  According to Miller, Suddenly, Last Summer is not only about a love that dare not speak its name but also about a love that dare not show its face: we only glimpse Sebastian in blurry flashbacks, and always from behind (see below).  Taylor’s Catherine thus acts as Sebastian’s front in more ways than one; she “procures” male lovers for him using bait-and-switch tactics, just as her body, seen head-on, becomes the verso to Sebastian’s recto. 

Miller’s reading is so dazzling that it seems impossible to put forth a queer reading that could top it—so I won’t try.  But I will suggest an additional way in which the film makes a queer substitution for the obscene (literally “off-screen”) figure of Sebastian.  We should note that there is at least one other homosexual in this text: namely, Montgomery Clift, playing the doctor who, by playing detective, effectively unravels the mystery surrounding Sebastian’s death.  More so than his fellow queer actors Farley Granger and John Dall, Clift spent his career avoiding material that might give the lie to his own homosexuality, but it turns out that he himself becomes the victim of a funny sort of bait-and-switch in Suddenly, Last Summer by being made a stand-in for Sebastian. 

Internet rumors persist in claiming that Clift actually did stand in for Sebastian during the flashback sequences, though publicity stills suggest that Sebastian was, in fact, played by a different actor who remains to be credited (pictured, bottom).  Nevertheless, characters keep taking Dr. Cukrowicz for the late Sebastian.  “Such extraordinary eyes—so like his,” muses Sebastian’s devoted mother Violet, gazing at Cukrowicz; later, she invites him to have a seat in what used to be Sebastian’s chair.  When characters aren’t confusing Cukrowicz with Sebastian, they’re trying to make a retroactive match between them.  “I almost said you must meet my son Sebastian,” Violet tells Cukrowicz, as if she herself were still in the business of procuring lovers for her son.  Populated as the film is by more than one woman with a thing for gay men, Clift becomes the de facto gay man toward whom their sexual energies get directed; they man-handle him as if by doing so they’re able to get in touch with Sebastian’s own body.  Catherine can’t stop throwing herself at him, and at the end of the film Violet not only caresses him (see above), she actually speaks to him in her madness as Sebastian.  Thus the queerness of a film like Suddenly, Last Summer seeps even into its most fervent attempts to ward it off.  Much like the imaginary “truth serum” with which Catherine imagines herself being injected, the queer presence at work in the film seems to bring out the gay man in everyone.  


The Films of 2012: Life of Pi

Ang Lee has made a successful career as a journeyman filmmaker, dabbling in a variety of genres—the kung fu drama, the Western, the period piece.  With Life of Pi, he tries his hand at what fifty years ago would have been called an animal picture.  Based on the Booker Prize-winning novel, Life of Pi centers on an Indian youth who survives a shipwreck only to find himself sharing a life-raft with a Bengal tiger.  It’s part adventure yarn, part spiritual autobiography, and if it doesn’t exactly work on the latter terms, it’s at least an engaging and beautifully mounted diversion, and it sports some of the year’s most striking imagery.


The homosexual in the text: Paul Newman as Brick Pollitt in "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" (1958)

Paul Newman with Burl Ives.

We see in the Hollywood films of the late 1950s and early 1960s the emergence of a subgenre that might be called the closet drama—that is to say, the melodrama that takes the phenomenon of closetedness as its central theme.  Tea and Sympathy (dir. Vincente Minnelli, 1956), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), Suddenly, Last Summer (dir. Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 1959) and The Children’s Hour (dir. William Wyler, 1961) (all of which, incidentally, originated as stage plays) make the closet into a MacGuffin, a plot device that mobilizes a range of dramatic scenarios (the confrontation, the confession, the investigation, etc.) and catalyzes various displays of emotion (confusion, curiosity, anger, shame, disgust, etc.).  All are put on even greater display in Richard Brooks’ film adaptation of Tennessee Williams’ Cat on a Hot Tin Roof than in the stage version, because by soft-pedaling the homosexuality of the play the film makes the space of the closet even more spectacularly impregnable—as impregnable, in fact, as Elizabeth Taylor’s Maggie, whose childlessness becomes the most telling signifier of her husband Brick’s queerness.  (As in Suddenly, Last Summer, as D. A. Miller has pointed out, the spectacle of homosexual desire, too horrific to show “head-on,” as it were, plays out on the level of the image of Taylor’s voluptuous female body.) 


The homosexual in the text: Lauren Bacall as Amy North in "Young Man with a Horn" (1950)

“You’re a sick girl, Amy!” Rick Martin (Kirk Douglas) snarls at his wife (Lauren Bacall) in Michael Curtiz’s rather unpleasant jazz melodrama Young Man with a Horn.  Those versed in classical Hollywood cinema know that sick is often code for queer, and that homosexuality—which was explicitly forbidden under the Production Code—often appeared on screen in the form of various degrees of mental illness.  Amy is neurotic, withholding, passive-aggressive, and anal-retentive, to name only four of her "symptoms."  All of the other familiar lesbian signifiers are here, too, in her elegant but mannish suits, her stand-offish demeanor, the sophisticated décor of her apartment (see below).  Bacall’s Amy North is what Halberstam might classify as a predatory dyke: calculating, urbane, aloof.  She matches her interior space, with its hard, sleek, coldly elegant surfaces, off-set by touches of the bizarre, such as a pet cockatoo to which she refers—ominously—as her “best friend.”

She’s also, not surprisingly, a career woman; she’s studying to become a psychiatrist.  The irony, of course, is that she’s the one with the “mental disorder” (recall that in 1950 homosexuality was still listed in the DSM).  But according to the sign system of the film, psychoanalysis itself is rendered as something queer.  Amy goes through the film dropping psychoanalytic jargon into conversation whenever possible, a habit that Rick initially finds amusing, then threatening, strange.  Amy’s circle of intellectual friends (one attractive female member of which she seems on the verge of seducing) are similarly presented as curious and untrustworthy, not “on the level.”  This is all the more ironic given the extent to which Young Man with a Horn, like many Hollywood films of the classical era, itself relies on pop Freudianism to explain its characters’ motivations, Amy’s included.  We learn that she has a hostile relationship with her father, idolized her late mother, and envies Rick his, um, horn.  “I’m jealous of you,” she confesses to him.  “I’d give anything to have what you’ve got, to be able to do one thing really well and know that it’s worth something.  Maybe that’s really why I married you.  I thought some of that would rub off on me.” 

But for all of Rick’s rubbing on Amy, she still lacks a horn of her own.  She’s almost a hyperbolic exaggeration of what Hollywood imagines the phallic woman to be.  Needless to say, Rick and Amy’s marriage is doomed.  Luckily for Rick, the film provides a foil to Amy in Doris Day’s sprightly Jo (see below).  Pert and sunny, she’s the day to Amy’s night—“so terribly normal,” as Amy herself witheringly puts it.  Amy is an example of the predatory dyke as femme fatale, trapped within the gilded cage of her own sexual “perversity,” someone to run away from, preferably into the arms of a “real” woman.  And yet, like all femme fatales, Amy’s dangerous sexuality makes her infinitely more attractive than the blandly chipper Jo, whose normality is, indeed, terrible. 


The homosexual in the text: Greta Garbo as "Queen Christina" (1933)

“Positivity and negativity, finally, are obviously not the best standards to use when measuring the political impact of any given representation,” writes Judith Halberstam—commendably—in Female Masculinity.  “We need to be more creative in our interpretations, more willing to use Hollywood, and quicker to ‘queer’ supposedly hegemonic and traditional depictions of masculinity and femininity.”  We might apply this line of thinking to the narrative structure of Queen Christina (dir. Rouben Mamoulian, 1933), in which Greta Garbo gives a downright electrifying performance as the imperious Swedish monarch who abdicates the throne out of love for her paramour, the Spanish envoy Don Antonio (John Gilbert).  Tragically, he is killed in a duel while she is on her way to sail off to with him to Spain; they exchange a final kiss before he dies in her arms.  The final shot of the film (above) depicts her once again alone, sailing aimlessly, looking like the prow of the ship itself, her face impassive.  It seems that she may very well live out her own prophecy of dying “a bachelor.” 


The homosexual in the text: Marlene Dietrich as Amy Jolly in "Morocco" (1930)

To what extent can we call Marlene Dietrich’s character in this, one of Josef von Sternberg’s most cultic films, “homosexual”?  Like many other queer characters in film and literary history, she appears to be straight—she harbors a crazy passion for a legionnaire played by Gary Cooper, and the film ends with her stalking out into the blazing desert sands after him.  Some might say that her queer credentials here can be chalked up to the iconic scene (the best in the film) in which she does a nightclub act immaculately dressed in a black tuxedo and top hat, and saunters through the audience, flirting with both the men and the women (she even kisses one female spectator gently on the mouth).  It’s an electrifying moment, not just because we’re watching her get away with something that would soon be forbidden in Hollywood films under the Production Code, but also because Dietrich bends gender so glamorously: she makes a sexy man and a sexy woman.